KITAB-UL-JANA’IZ    (THE BOOK OF FUNERALS)

CHAPTER#1 - Introduction and Ghusl (Bath)

The mayyit (dead body) should be given ghusl on any flat surface which is raised above the ground, e.g. on a table (nowadays, most communities have special tables, stands for this purpose).

1. The table should be fumigated an odd number of times -3, 5 or 7 times—with loban (incense) or any other tãhir (paak, pure) substance, aerosol air-fresheners should not be used as these contain alcohol.
2. The mayyit should then (i.e. after fumigation of the table) be laid on the table in such a position which will enable the body to be turned facing the Qiblah. To ensure this, the mayyit’s feet should be in the direction of the Qiblah. Another method is to lay the body lengthwise to face the Qiblah when it is tilted on its right side—that is the same position in which it will be laid in the qabr (grave) or the Masnoon position adopted when going to sleep. If for some reason it is difficult to adopt such a position, then any position can be adopted.
3. The garments should then be removed from the mayyit. Garments such as the kurta (shirt) which cannot be easily removed should be cut loose with a pair of scissors. Before removing the lower garment which covers the satr (i.e. the portion from the navel to just below the knee), place a loose piece of cloth over the satr. It is haraam to view any part of the satr of either the living or the dead person.
4. Istinja of the mayyit should now be performed, i.e. the satr will be washed. It is neither permissible to look at the satr nor touch it with bare hands. Cloth mittens should be put on the hands and the washing should be done with the cloth remaining on the satr throughout the duration of the ghusl.
5. After istinja, wudhu (ablution) should be performed on the mayyit. The wudhu will be the same as the wudhu that a living person performs. The only difference is that the water will not be poured into the mayyit’s mouth or the nose. For this purpose cotton wool should be moistened with water and gently rubbed on the teeth and gums and turned in the nostrils.
6. The mouth and nose should be stuffed with cotton wool to prevent water entering while the ghusl is proceeding.
7. The hair and beard should then be washed thoroughly.
8. Now turn the mayyit on its left side and pour water along the length of the body from head to feet in such a way that the water flows over the body down to the left side on which the mayyit has been laid. Rub the body as the water flows on it. Repeat the process thrice. Thereafter turn the body onto its rightside. Repeat the washing thrice in the same way.
9. The water used for the ghusl should not be too hot or too cold. Instead, Luke warm water should be used.
10. Then lift the body slightly in the sitting position and gently massage the stom­ach with a downward stroke. Any impurity emerging should be removed and the affected part of the body washed. The ghusl should not be repeated if any najasat (impurity) emerges, nor the wudhu.
11. Thereafter again lay the mayyit on its left side and pour camphor water over the entire body thrice. The ghusl is now complete. The body should be dried.
12. At all times ensure that the satr is concealed. The cloth covering the satr will be wet therefore replace it with a dry cloth before taking the body to the kafan While carrying the body to the kafan, ensure that the satr does not become exposed. Wrap a sheet around the body before carrying it to the kafan.

MASÃ-IL (RULES) PERTAINING TO GHUSL

1. It is not permissible for a husband to give ghusl to his deceased wife, nor is it permissible for him to touch any pan of her body with his bare hands. He may, however, look at her face and if she has no mahram males to lower her body into the qabr, he may assist with this task.
2. If males are not available, a wife may give the ghusl to her deceased husband No other woman is allowed to participate in the ghusl even if she is a mahram. If the deceased male has no wife and only women are present, ghusl will not be permissible. Tayammum should be performed. The woman who will perform the Tayammum should wear gloves.
3.
It is not permissible to comb the hair or beard of the mayyit.
4. It is not permissible to apply surmah to the eyes of the mayyit.
5. It is not permissible to cut the nails or the hair of the mayyit.
6. Remove the false teeth if this is possible.
7. A woman in the state of haidh or nifãs should not bathe the mayyit. It is prohibited.
8. Never reveal to others any defect/fault one observes on the body of the mayyit.
9. If only the human head without the body is found, ghusl will not be performed to it. It should however, be wrapped in a cloth and buried.
10. If more than half the human body is found, with or without the head, effecting ghusl is incumbent.
11. If half of the human body is found with the head, ghusl will be given. If half the body is found without the head, ghusl will not be given.
12. If less than half the human body is found, ghusl will not be performed even if the head is with it.
13. If a mayyit is found in a predominantly Muslim area, ghusl will be given to it if its identity cannot be established. If it is established that the de­ceased is a non-Muslim, then ghusl will not be performed.
14. If a number of Muslim bodies became mixed with non-Muslim bodies, e.g. in a disaster situation, and identification is not possible, then all the bodies will be given ghusl.
15. If after the mayyit was given Tayammum on account of in availability of water, water is found, then ghusl will be performed.
16. If a mayyit was not given ghusl, then until such a time the qabr has not been filled with sand, it (the body) shall be removed and the ghusl given. It will not be permissible to exhume the body for ghusl and kafan once the grave has been closed.
17. It is preferable for the closest relatives to perform the ghusl. Although this is best, any Muslim may perform this obligation.
18. It is better to have such a person to perform the ghusl, who will not ask for a wage.

SPECIAL CASES

KHUNTHÃ MUSHKIL

A hermaphrodite or a person with both male and female sexual organs is termed Khunthã Mushkil. It is not permissible to perform ghusl to the mayyit if the person is a Khunthã Mushkil. Tayammum should be performed.
Khunthã Mushkil is a person whose sex cannot be determined on account of both sex organs being equally functional If any one organ has greater domi­nance, the person will be classified accordingly and will then not be Khunthã Mushkil, e.g. if the male organ only functions or is more functional than the female organ, the person will be classified as a male or vice versa.

THE MURTAD

Murtad is a Muslim who has renounced Islam. Even if a person does not openly renounce Islam, but rejects any of the essentials of the Deen, e.g. Salãt, Saum, Finality of the Risãlat (Prophethood), he/she will be a murtad.

It is not permissible to perform the Masnoon ghusl, kafan and dafan (bunai) for a murtad. It is also not permissible to hand over the murtad’s body to his co­religionists.
The body of a murtad shall not be washed nor wrapped in a cloth. It shall be placed into a hole and covered up in the same way as a dead animal is buried.

IF THE NON-MUSLIM MAYYIT IS A CLOSE RELATIVE

•When a non-Muslim relative, e.g. mother or father dies and there is only a Muslim relative to organize the burial, the mayyit should be handed over to the non-Muslims.
•If for some reason the non-Muslims refuse, then the Muslim relative should attend to the burial.
•Masnoon kafan and Masnoon burial are not permissible for non-Muslims However, the body shall be washed in the same way as najis cloth is washed, wrapped in any cloth and placed in a hole without observing the Islamic way of burial.
•Whereas the Muslim mayyit becomes tãhir (paak) with ghusl, the kafir mayyit remains najis (impure) even after washing.
•It is not permissible for Muslims to participate in the funeral and burial serv­ices of non-Muslims even if they are parents or neighbors.

CHAPTER#2 - The Kafan

The shrouds of cloth in which the mayyit will be wrapped for burial are called the Kafan.
The Masnoon Kafan for a male consists of three sheets known as the lifãfah, qamees and izãr. The Masnoon Kafan for a female consists of five cloths known as lifãfah, seenah-band, kurtah, izãr and sar-band.

THE MALE’S KAFAN

The lifãfah (the outer sheet which will cover the entire body from above the head to below the feet) should firstly be spread out. The izãr which is a sheet from the head to the feet, should be spread on the lifãfah. The qamees should be placed on the izãr.

The qamees is a sheet that will fit over the mayyit’s body like a kurtah. It will have an opening for the head to go through. It will have no pockets, sleeves and seams. It is a plain white sheet which will cover the front and the back of the mayyit in the same way as a kurtah covers a person.

The qamees should be placed on the izãr in such a position to enable it to be slipped over the head of the mayyit. Thus, one half of the qamees will be covering the back and one half the front of the mayyit.

The Kafan should be white in color.

When the mayyit is laid on the Kafan, apply itar (alcohol-free perfume) to the hair and beard. Itar should not be applied to the kafan nor should bits of cotton wool soaked with perfume be placed in the ears of the mayyit.

Camphor should be rubbed onto the forehead, nose, both palms, both knees and both feet.

THE FEMALE’S KAFAN

First spread the lifãfah then the izãr on top of it. Then spread the qamees. At this stage the female mayyit should be laid on the kafan. Now wrap the qamees over the mayyit. Divide the hair on the head into two parts and place it on the qamees over the breasts, one part on the right side and one part on the left side.

Now place the sar-band over the hair on the head without tying or wrapping it Thereafter wrap the izãr, first the left flap and then the right flap on top of it.

Now wrap the seenah-band in the same way, i.e. first left flap then the right flap on top. The seenah-band is a sheet from the breasts to the thighs. The seenah-band may be wrapped after the sar-band and before wrapping the izãr. It may also be wrapped second last, i.e. before the lifãfah which is the largest sheet. This outer-sheet, the lifãfah, is wrapped last, first the left side, then the right side on top of it. The sar-band is a piece of cloth which is for covering the head and the hair which has been placed on the breasts.

The strips of the cloth on the kafan at the head, feet and around the waist to prevent the kafan opening up when the mayyit is carried.
Itar (perfume) should not be applied to the hair of a female mayyit. However, camphor should be rubbed on the parts as described in the section dealing with the male’s kafan.

MASÃ-IL (RULES) PERTAINING TO THE KAFAN

The five cloths/sheets required for a female’s kafan are Sunnat. It is permissible to use only three cloths, which are: the lifãfah, the izãr and the sar-band.
It is Makrooh and sinful to use less than three cloths for a females kafan
The Sunnat kafan for a male consists of three sheets. Two sheets, the lifãfah and izãr, will also suffice.
The Sunnat or Masnoon kafan (5 cloths for a woman and 3 for a man) should not be disregarded unnecessarily.
It is not permissible to put any written dua’a, ta’weez or ayah in the kafan nor is it permissible to write anything on the kafan.
It is permissible to put a piece of the ghilãf of the Ka’bah Shareef in the kafan for the sake of deriving baraka’h (blessing).
It is permissible to purchase and keep one’s kafan during one’s lifetime.

CHAPTER#3 - Carrying the Janaz'ah and Burial

Burying the mayyit is Fardh-e-Kifayah. If a few persons bury the mayyit, the obligation is discharged on behalf of the whole community However, if no one executes this duty, the whole community is sinful. Burial should take place immediately after the Janãzah Salãt has been per­formed. There should be no unnecessary delay.

If the mayyit is an adult or a big girl or boy, it should be carried on any convenient carrier (a flat surface). In most cases a special Janãzah is made for this purpose. In some places a light bed (made of bamboo and rope) is used.

Four males at a time will carry the Janãzah, one man holding aloft each cor­ner, The Janãzah shall be carried aloft on the shoulders, not in the hands low down as is the style of non-Muslims.

It is Makrooh to unnecessarily transport the Janãzah by vehicle The Masnoon way is to walk with the Janãzah.

HOW TO CARRY THE JANAZAH

It is Mustãhab to walk at least 40 steps carrying the Janãzah. This is accom­plished as follows:

•First carry the left front of the Janãzah on the right shoulder (this will be the mayyit’s right shoulder) and walk ten steps. Then carry the left near on the right shoulder for ten steps. Then carry the right front on the left shoulder for 10 steps and finally the left right rear on your left shoulder Tor 10 steps.
•If the crowd is big, this method may be omitted Inconvenience should not be caused to others.
•It is Masnoon to carry the Janãzah walking briskly without running or jogging. However, the body should not be jolted while walking.
•Those accompanying the Janãzah should walk behind, not ahead of the Janãzah.
•Those accompanying the Janãzah should not recite anything audibly. They may recite silently to themselves.
•When carrying the Janãzah, the mayyit s head should be in front.
•It is Makrooh for those accompanying the Janãzah to sit before it has been lowered from the shoulders of those who are carrying it.
•When lowering the Janãzah on the ground, it should be placed lengthwise on the Qiblah side of the grave at the feet
•Before lowering the body of a female, Purdah (Hijab) should be arranged. The qabr should be covered with a sheet while the body is being lowered.

CHAPTER#5 - Infant Mayyit and Issues of Exhumation

A baby or a small child will also be given the Masnoon ghusl, kafan and dafan (burial). A small child will be carried in the arms of those accompanying the Janãzah. It should be passed from the arms of one person to the arms of another.

EXHUMATION OF THE MAYYIT

Once the mayyit has been closed with sand, exhuming it will not be permissi­ble except when the rights of others are related to it. Such examples of permis­sible exhumation are;

1. The mayyit was buried in the property of a person without obtaining the consent of the owner. If the owner demands that the body be removed, it will be incumbent to exhume it. He also has the right to flatten the grave and use the land for his purposes without ordering exhumation. lf how­ever, he allows the qabr to remain, it will be an act of Thawãb (reward).
2. The mayyit had swallowed some valuable item and its owner demands its return. The body will then be exhumed.
3. Exhumation for medical examination and postmortem is not permissible.
4. After closing the qabr if it is recalled that the mayyit was not laid facing
the Qiblah, then the qabr should not be exhumed for this purpose.

CHAPTER#6 - Death at Sea and the Stillborn Child

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CHAPTER#7 - Ta'aziyyat (Condolences) and Isaal-e-Thawaab

1. Meeting the close members of the mayyit and consoling them is called Ta’ziyat.
Ta’ziyat is Sunnat.
2. When visiting the relatives of the mayyit, they should be comforted, consoled, and given encouragement. The virtues of Sabr (patience) should be expressed.
3. Ta’ziyat should take place within three days of the demise of the mayyit. This is for the local residents. After three days, Ta’ziyat is Makrooh. However, for those coming from different towns, Ta’ziyat is valid even after the third day.
4. A person who has once discharged the obligation of Ta’ziyat should not repeat it. It is Makrooh to go for Ta’ziyat a second time.
5. Ta’ziyat should not take place immediately after burial. The crowd should not return from the graveyard to the home of the mayyit. It is Makrooh to do so. Ta’ziyat is an act to be executed individually at any time within three days.
6. It is not Sunnat for those coming for Ta’ziyat to recite Surah Mulk or engage in any prescribed dua’a for the mayyit in the home of the relatives.
7. If the Ta’ziyat was offered by way of letter, it should not be repeated by ones physical presence.

The following dua’a may be recited on the occasion of Ta’ziyat:
“May Allah grant you great reward; may He comfort you in your distress and may He forgive your deceased.”

ISAAL-E-THWÃB

•Isaal-E-Thawãb means bestowal of Thawãb (reward of good acts) to the deceased.
•In this regard people adhere to a variety of bid’ah practices and customs. Innovated practices which have neither origin nor sanction in the Sunnah have no merit. The mayyit does not benefit from such baseless and un-Islamic customs.
•Isaal-E-Thawãb should be rendered in the way of the Salf-E-Sãleheen (the Sahabah and Ta’bieen). Any good deed should be performed and dua’a should be made to Allah Ta’ala to bestow the Thawãb thereof to the mayyit. Reciting Qur’an Shareef, performing Nafl Salãt, charity, etc, according to one’s ability and means, without any ostentation, gathering or observance of any specific day, for example 7th or 40th day. These are acts which could be offered for the Thawãb of the mayyit.
•There are no congregational or prescribed acts or customs to be observed for the Isaal-E- Thawãb of the deceased.
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CHAPTER#8 - Waseelah

1. What is the meaning of Waseelah? There is a sect who spreads great mischief and fitnah in the Ummah by false presentation of the conception of Waseelah and by its slander against the Ulama-e-Haqq who expounded the correct Islamic meaning of this concept.
2. Waseelah in the Shariah means to supplicate directly to Allah Ta’ala for the acceptance of one’s dua through the agency of Rasullullah (Sallahu alayhi wasallam) or any other Nabi or Wali Allah Ta’ala.
3. The Islamic meaning of Waseelah does not consist of praying or making dua to Rasulullah (Sallalãhu alayhi wasallam) or any other created being. Islam teaches that the only Being to whom prayers and dua’a have to be directed, is Allah (SWT). Directing one’s prayer and dua’a to any being other than Allah Ta’ala is shirk or polytheism, and shirk is the worst of sins committed against Allah Ta’ala,
4. The sect known as the Ahle Bid’ah (or Qabar Pujaris/Grave-worshippers) slanders the Ulama-e-Haqq by alleging that the latter reject Waseelah and in so doing are disrespect­ful to Rasulullah (Sallalãhu alayhi wasallam). The Ulama at no time whatsoever had rejected this belief of Waseelah. However, the beliefs and accretions of shirk which the grave-worshippers have clustered to the proper Waseelah method, are what the Ulama of Deoband and all Ulama throughout the ages of Islamic history have persistently criticized and rejected.
5. In the unanimous view of all the Ulama of the Ahl-e-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah, adoption of Waseelah in dua is not only permissible, but is meritorious. The excesses and transgressions caused in regard to this practice are condemned. The correct method of Waseelah is based on the Qur’an, the Hadith and the Ijma’ of the Ummah. This is the belief of all the Ulama of Deoband whom the Grave-worshippers slanderously accuse of rejecting Waseelah. The Grave-worshippers are indeed guilty of a grave act of injustice. They are intentionally closing their eyes to the truth.
6. Hazrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (rahmatullahi alaih) has written a treatise in substantiation of the validity of the Islamic conception of Waseelah. In his treatise, Hazrat Hakim-ul-Ummat has clarified this question. Any Mus­lim who has no bias and malice to churn out against the Ulama of Deoband will in all honesty acknowledge the truth of our Ulama and dismiss with dis­gust the evil slanders of the Grave-worshipper sect.
Tawassul (another word for Waseelah) is classified into three categories, i.e,

1. To supplicate (or make dua) directly to created beings is the way of the mushrikcen (the polytheists). This form of tawassul is unanimously haraam. If this form of Waseelah is accompanied by the belief that the created being to whom the prayer is directed, is himself independent and able to grant the prayer, then such belief will be such shirk which is kufr in the same -way as Salãt or Saurn (Fasting) offered to a created being will be such form of shirk which as to constitute kufr.
The conception of independence and self-sufficiency (Istiqlaal) as believed in by certain misguided people, is to believe that Allah Ta’ala has assigned certain affairs to the created being in such a way that the created being in executing the affair is not dependent on the special Will of Allah Ta’ala even though they acknowledge that Allah Ta’ala has the power of dismissing the created being from the office assigned to him (created be­ing).

•Requesting a created being to supplicate (make dua) on one’s behalf. This form of tawassul is permissible in relation to a living person since it is manifestly clear that a living person can make the dua. However since there exists no Shar’ia evidence (daleel) to indicate that this type of tawassul is valid in relation to a person who has died, a dead person cannot be asked to supplicate on one’s behalf.
•To supplicate directly to Allah Ta’ala, asking Him to accept one’s dua by virtue of the barkat (auspiciousness) of a pious created being. The Jamhoor (majority of the Ulama of Shari’ah) have opined that this form tawassul is permissible and, the Ulama of Deoband accept and adopt this method while rejecting the former two methods.

CHAPTER#9 - The Mayyit's Wali

•The person the Shari’at has appointed as the guardian of the mayyit is called a Wali.
•Those relatives on the father’s side known as Asbãt are the Auliya (plural of Wali) of the mayyit. The order of priority of the mayyit’s Auliya is as follows: father, grandfather (paternal grandfather), son, grandson (son’s son) brother, nephew (brother’s son). Thus, the first Wali whose right it is to per­form the Janãzah Salãt is the father. In the absence of the father, the right devolves to the grandfather and in his absence to the son, then the grandson, then the brother and finally to the nephew.
•If the mayyit is a female who has no male Auliya, her Wali will then be her husband.
•In a Muslim country the right of performing the Janãzah Salãt devolves first on the Muslim ruler or the one whom he appoints for this purpose.
•The Imam of the local Masjid has a greater right than the Asbāt to lead the Janãzah Salãt.
•Where there is a Muslim ruler, his representative or the local Imam, it is not permissible for anyone else to conduct the Janãzah Salãt without their consent.
•In the absence of the Muslim ruler, his representative or the local Imam, it is the right of the Asbāt to perform the Janãzah Salãt. If anyone performs the Janãzah Salãt without the consent of the Wali (from among the Asbāt), the Wali has the right of repeating the Salãt Even after the mayyit has been buried. The Wali has the right to perform the Janãzah Salãt at the graveside as long as the decomposition of the body has not commenced.
•If one who has prior right over the Wali, e.g. the ruler or the local Imam, performs the Janãzah Salãt without the consent of the Wali, the latter (i.e. the Wali) will not be entitled to repeat the Salãt.

CHAPTER#10 - Salat-ul-Janaazah (Prayers)

•The Janãzah Salãt is in fact a dua’a (prayer and supplication) on behalf of the dead. The Shuroot (conditions) of other Salãts are applicable to Janãzah Salãt as well. The mayyit (the dead) should be placed in front of those performing the Janãzah Salãt. The Imam should stand in line with the chest of the mayyit.There are two Fardh acts in Salãtul Janãzah, these are:
To recite “Allahu Akbar” four times.
Qiyaam—to perform Janãzah Salãt standing. There is no Ruku, Sajdah, etc. in Salãtul-Janãzah.
•There are three Sunnah acts in Salãtul Janãzah, these are:
Hamd—to recite Praises to Allah Ta’ala.Durood upon Rasulullah (Sallalāhu Alayhi wa Sallam)
Dua’a for the mayyit.
• Jama’t (congregation) is not a condition for the validity of Salãtul-Janãzah. Hence, if even one person—man or woman—performs it, the Fardh obligation is discharged. But, the need to perform Salãt in Jama’t is of overriding importance since it is a dua’a for the mayyit.

HOW TO PERFORM SALÃT-UL-JANÃZAH

The mayyit should be placed in front with the Imam standing in line with the mayyit’s chest. It is Mustãhab to form three rows behind the Imam. If there are only seven people – one of them being the Imam – three should stand in the first Saff (row), two in the second Saff and one in the third Saff.

The following Niyyat isthen recited (or an intention is made in the mind):

(I make Niyyat of performing Salãtul-Janãzah for Allah Ta’ala and as a dua’a for the deceased.)

After the Niyyat recite “Allahu-Akbar” and raise the hands to the ears (as in other Salãts) and fold as usual. Now Recite Thana:

(SUB-HAANA-KAL-LAA-HUMMA WA BI-HAMDI-KA-WA TA-BAA-RAKAS MUKA WA TA-AALA-JAD DU-KA-WA LAA-ILAA-HA GHAY RUK)

Glory unto You, O Allah! All Praise unto You. Blessed is Your Name and Most High is Your Majesty. There is none worthy of worship but You.
After Thana, recite again “Allahu-Akbar” once, but do not raise the hands. After this Takbeer recite Duruud-e-lbrahim.

Duruud-e-Ibrahim

(ALLAHUMMA SLLI ALA MUHAMMADIN WA-ALA AALI MUHAMMADIN KAMA SAL-LAITA ALA IBRAHIMA WA-ALA ALI IBRAHIMA INNAKA HAMIDUM-MAJEED)

(ALLAHUMMA BAARIK ALA MUHAMMADIN WA-ALA AALI MUHAMMADIN KAMA BARAK-TA ALA IBRAHIMA WA-ALA ALI IBRAHIMA INNAKA HAMIDUM-MAJEED.)

“O’, Allah! send Thy mercy on Muhammad (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and on his progeny as Thou has sent mercy on Ibrahim and his progeny. No doubt! Thou art Great and Praiseworthy! Oh Allah! send Thy blessings on Muhammad Sallahu alayhi wasallam and on his progeny as Thou blessed Ibrahim and his progeny. No doubt! Thou art Great and Praiseworthy.”

After Durood-e-Ibrahim recite “Allahu-Akbar” again once (but do not raise the hands), and recite a dua’a for the mayyit If the mayyit is a baaligh (of age) male or female recite the following dua’a:

(ALLAHUMMAGH-FIR-LI-HAIY-YINA- WA- MAIY-YITI-NA- WA- SHA-HIDI-NA- WA- GHA-IBI-NA- WA- SAGHEE-RINA- WA- KABEE-RINA WA ZAKA-RINA- WA UNSANA ALLAHUMMA- MAN- AH-YAI-TA-HU- MINNA FA-AH-YIHI-ALAL- ISLAM, WA MAN TAWAF-FAITAHU MINNA FATAWAF-FAHU ALAL IMAN.)

“O’, Allah forgive our living and dead, present and absent, old and young men and-woman. O’, Allah, whomever among us is kept alive, by You, keep him alive on Islam and whomever You give death, let him die on Iman.”

If the deceased is a Na-baaligh (minor) boy, recite:

(ALLHUMMAJ-AL-HU-LANA FARATAU WAJ-AL-HU LANA AJ-RAU WA-ZAKHRAU WAJ-AL-HU LANA SHA-FI-AU WA MUSHAF-FA-A.)

“O’, Allah, make him a source of happiness for us; and make him a reward and a treasure for us, and make him for us an intercessor and an accepted intercession.”

If the deceased is a Na-baaligh girl, recite the same dua as for a Na-baaligh boy but recite on all the three places “Aj-Alha” instead of “Aj-Alhu” and

(SHA-FI-ATAU WA MUSHAF-FA-ATAN)

instead of

(SHA-FI-AW WA MUSHAF-FA-A.)

After the dua, recite “Allahu-Akbar.” Again, do not raise the hands. After this fourth Takbeer make the Salaams as is done in other Salãts. After the fourth Takbeer, release the hands, i.e. even before the Salaam.
The Imam recites the four Takbeers and the Salaams aloud and the Muqtadis silently.

MASÃ-IL PERTAINING TO SALÃTUL-JANÃZAH

Time is not a condition for the validity of Salãtul-Janãzah. It could be performed at any time.
If one fears that Salãtul-Janãzah will be missed if one engages in wudhu, it will be permissible to make Tayammum.
Salãtul-Janãzah is not permissible for a person who has been executed for the crime of having murdered any one of his parents.
Salãtul-Janãzah will be performed for a child if any one of his/her parents is a Muslim.
The body and the Kafan of the mayyit should be tãhir (paak/clean/pure). Salãtul-Janãzah is not valid if either the body or the kafan is najis (impure). The body should be pure of both Najãsat-e-Hukmiyah (Hadth which requires ghusl) and Najãsat-e-Haqiqiyah (physical impurities). However, if after having completed ghusl and kafan, Najãsat emerged from the body and soiled the mayyit or the kafan, then in this case, Salãtul-Janãzah will be valid.
If for a valid reason ghusl could not be given and tayammum too was not affected, then Salãtul-Janãzah will not be valid. However, if the mayyit has already been buried without any form of tahãrat (ghusl or tayammum) having been affected, then it is permissible to perform Salãtul-Janãzah at his/her graveside.
If the Salãtul-Janãzah was performed on the mayyit while it was in the state of impurity and thereafter buried, the Salãtul-Janãzah should be performed again at the graveside of the mayyit.
The mayyit should be placed it front of those performing the Salãtul-Janãzah, or otherwise the Salãtul-Janãzah will not be valid.
For the validity of the Salãtul-Janãzah, the mayyit or the container in which the mayyit lies should be on the ground. If it is in the vehicle or on the backs of people, Salãtul-Janãzah will not be valid.
Salãtul-Janãzah will be valid only if the body is present. Salãtul-Janãzah for a mayyit in another city/country is not valid.
The things and acts that invalidate other Salāts, invalidate Salãtul-Janãzah as well. However, unlike the instance of laughter aloud in a Salãt other than Salãtul-Janãzah, where wudhu as well as the Salãt of the laughing person is nullified; such is not the case in Salãtul-Janãzah. In Salãtul-Janãzah if a person laughs aloud, only his Salãt will be nullified, not his wudhu as is the case in other Salãts.
It is Makrooh Tahrimi (reprehensible and not permissible) to take the Janãzah inside the Masjid. The Salãtul-Janãzah should not be performed inside the Masjid.
It is not permissible to perform the Salãtul-Janãzah while sitting if one has no valid reason for sitting.
When there is more than one Janãzah
When several Janãiz (plural of Janãzah) are present at the same time, it is better to perform each Janãzah Salãt separately. If a single Salãt is performed for all the Janãiz present, it will also be permissible.
If a single Janãzah Salãt is performed, the method of arranging the Janãiz is to place them in a vertical row with all the heads in one direction. In this arrangement the Imam will be standing in line with the chests of all the mayyits.
If the Janãzahs present are of different classes, i.e. men, women, and children, then the Janãzahs of the men will be placed first. Thereafter, those of the boys, then of the women and last the Janãzahs of minor girls.
When arriving late for the Salãtul-Janãzah
If someone arrives after one or more of the Takbirs of the Salãt have been completed, he should not recite the Takbir and join the Salãt immediately as is the case with other Salãt. He should wait for the Imam to recite Takbir. When the Imam recites Takbir he (the late-comer) too should recite the Takbir and join in the Salãt. This will be Takbir-e-Tahrimah for the late-comer. When the Imam recites the Salaam, the late-comer should fulfil the Takbirs which he had missed. There is no need for him to recite anything other than the missed Takbirs.
If someone arrives after the Imam has recited the fourth Takbir, he (the late-comer) should immediately recite the Takbir, join the Salãt and recite the missed Takbirs.
Salãtul-Janãzah has to be compulsorily performed for all Muslims regardless of their indulgence in any types of sin. However, if a Muslim is killed in a rebellion against the Khalifah or just Islamic ruler, Salãtul-Janãzah will not be performed for him nor will it be performed for a person who has killed any of his parents.
If a Muslim highway bandit/robber is executed by the Khalifah/just Islamic ruler for his crime of banditry, Salãtul-Janãzah will not be performed for him.
The wasiyyat (bequest) of the mayyit that a particular person should perform his/her Salãtul-Janãzah is not valid. It is not binding to fulfill this wasiyyat.
It is not permissible to perform Salãtul-Janãzah for Qadianis, Ahmadis, Shiahs, Ismailis, and other such persons who are not Muslims on account of their denial of the essentials of Islam.
Salãtul-Janãzah is obligatory for even a person who is of illegitimate birth.
If the Muslim bodies became mixed with non-Muslimbodies and differ­entiating is not possible, Janãzah Salãt will be performed with the inten­tion that the Salãt is for Muslim deceased.
If the Janãzah is brought at thc time of Eid Salãt the Janãzah Salãt will be performed after the Eid Salãt before the commencement of the Eid Khutbah.
After the Janãzah Salãt there is no dua to be made before burial.
If the Imam mistakenly recites a fifth Takbir in Janãzah Salãt the muqtadis should not fallow him in reciting the fifth Takbir. They should remain standing until he recites the Salaam. When he recites the Salaam the muqtadis should join him and recite the Salaam as well.
The Imamat of a minor is not valid in Janãzah Salãt.

Performing the Janãzah Salãt in the Makrooh Times
There are three Makrooh times, there are:

1. Sunrise
2. Zawwal (Mid-day)
3. Sunset
It is forbidden to perform the daily Salãt or any Nafl or Qadha Salãt in the Makrooh times except the Asr Salãt of the day. If it was not yet performed then it should be performed even while the sun is setting.
It is, however, permissible to perform Janãzah Salãt in the Makrooh times. The rules for performing Janãzah Salãt in the Makrooh times are as follows:

•If the Janãzah arrives or is ready for the Salãt-ul-Janãzah precisely at the Makrooh time, the Janãzah Salãt should be performed immediately.
•If the Janãzah arrives or is ready for Salãt-ul-Janãzah before the setting in of the Makrooh time, then is Makrooh to delay the Salãt-ul-Janãzah for the Makrooh time. In this case performance of the Salãt-ul-Janãzah in the Makrooh time is Makrooh Tahrimi.
•Salãt-ul-Janãzah is permissible after the Asr Salãt.

CHAPTER#11 - Some Evil and Bid'ah Practices Discussed

•When a death occurs men and women of the neighborhood gather at the deceased’s home. Hijab (Purdah) is totally discarded and inter-mingling of males and females takes place. This practice is haraam. The deceased does not gain any benefit from such gatherings. These gatherings are not part of the Janãzah service. it is not permissible for women to emerge from their homes to attend such un-Islamic gatherings.
•It is a practice among many people to put the body on display. Even if the viewers are ghair-mahrams, they file into the room to view the mayyit. It is not permissible for women to look at the face of the mayyit if he (the mayyit) is ghair-mahram. Similarly, it is not permissible for a man to take a look at a female mayyit’s face if he is not the mahram to her.
•It is not permissible for the females of the neighborhood to gather at the mayyit’s house for any dua’a or khatm. In some places there is this custom while the body awaits burial. This type of gathering is bid’ah.
•There is no ceremony to perform at the home of the mayyitbefore or after the burial. All customs and practices in vogue in this regard are un-founded innovations (bid’ah), hence it is sinful.
•The practice or feasting at the mayyit’s home or after burial is bid’ah and not permissible.
•The customs of seven-day, forty day, and etc. khatam are bid’ah. Inviting friends and relatives to congregation for Qur’an recital on specific days, e.g. the seventh day and then feeding them after the recital, is not permis­sible.
•The dua’a which is made after the Janãzah Salãt has been performed is bid’ah. The Janãzah Salãt itself is the Dua’a for the mayyit.
• Before burial, after burial and even while the burial takes place people indulge in futile conversation. It is sinful to indulge in such nonsensical talks on such a somber occasion as Maut. Instead, recite some verses of the Qur’an silently and ask Allah Ta’ala to bestow the Thawãb thereof to the mayyit.
•Celebration of death anniversaries is not permissible.
• The belief that the rooh (soul) of the mayyit remains in the house or visits the house for forty days is baseless. While it is possible for the rooh to visit any place with the permission of Allah Ta’ala, the belief that it does in fact visit the home on specific days is not correct.
• Kissing the grave is not permissible.
• A bad practice which has recently developed is the unnecessary delay in performing the Janãzah Salãt on account of some persons proceeding for wudhu precisely at the time when the Jama’t is standing ready in Saffs (rows) for the Salãt. The Jama’t is kept waiting for up to 30 minutes, while a couple of people engage in wudhu. The entire congregation waits, stand­ing in the Saffs. People should ensure that they are with wudhu by the time the Salãt is to be performed. Where this bad practice has developed, the Imam should commence the Salãt. He should not delay the Salãt, waiting for the few who are negligent and without wudhu.

MISCELLANEOUS JANAZAH

Regarding the lax and un-Islamic attitude which Muslims have adopted on burial occasions, Shaikh Abdullah Bin Muhammad Al-Khalifi, Imam of Masjidul Haraam says:

“Among the innovations in conflict with the Sunnah introduced by many a people today regarding the burial of their dead is their laxity. They do not make haste with the Janãzah nor do they maintain silence. They do not reflect about the destination towards which the dead is proceeding. Some even en­gage in conversation regarding his wealth, children, etc. The Sunnah opposes this.”

It is reliably narrated that Rasulullah (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam) was exceptionally silent when following the Janãzah. Fear and concern could be discerned on his countenance. The Salf-e-Sāliheen (illustrious Fuqaha and Auliya of former times) would not engage in any conversation when they participated in the burial except such talk which directly concerned the mayyit and its burial and its abode towards which it was journeying. But nowadays the majority of people following the Janãzah are seen to laugh and amuse themselves with futility. They speak about the mayyit’s inheritance and the heirs.

Having drifted from the Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam) Muslims of the age are increasingly adopting the ways of Non-Muslims on burial occasions. Of the evils which are associated with Muslim Janãzahs are:

In many places the Janãzah affairs are no longer considered as a Fardh Kifāyah obligation. Burial of a Muslim devolves as an obligation on the entire community. It is Fardh for a group in the community—those closest related to the deceased—to attend the burial. This has to be discharged as an act of Ibadat. But, nowadays the trend is to join some burial society operating along kuffar lines. The society is established for commercial gain and has no religious allegiance.
Long delays take place on burial occasions. Rasulullah (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam) instructed that the burial takes place immediately–as soon as possible. But, people following the customs of the non-Muslims delay the burial inordinately waiting for relatives and friends to come in from other places/countries. While it is an act of goodness for many people to be present in the Janãzah Salãt, it is not permissible to delay the burial on this account. The mayyit should be buried as soon as it has been prepared for the qabr.
Innovatory styles of prayer which have no relation with the Sunnah have been adopted after the burial. A hypocritical show is enacted at the graveside. Several persons lead the graveside prayer ceremony. After one fellow has completed his share another misguided fellow takes over with his formulae of recitation. In this way the ceremony of bid’ah is conducted in total conflict with the way of Rasulullah (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam).
Women gather at the mayyit’s house in droves. They strut around in the vicinity and on the streets pouring into the mayyit’s house. On one occa­sion Rasulullah (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam) drove away and expelled a group of women who had attended a Janãzah. All Shar’i rules of Hijab (Purdah) are shamelessly violated by women on the occasion of a Janãzah which should in fact, be a time for contemplating the Ākhirah.

REGARDING VISITING THE GRAVES

Rasulullah (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam) said: “Visit the quboor (graves), for verily, it reminds you of death.”

In this Hadith, Rasulullah (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam) states the purpose of visiting the Qabrustān. The main reason for visiting the Qabrustān is remem­brance of death. Such remembrance is essential to keep the Muslim on the spiritual course leading to Allah’s Pleasure and success in the Ākhirah. Re­membrance of Maut slackens worldly love and engenders love for the Ākhirah. Regular visits to the Qabrustān facilitate this remembrance.

In addition to the benefit which the visitor gains, the inmates of the graves also benefit much by the dua and recital of the visitor.
When visiting the Qabrustān, the niyyat should be Remembrance of Maut and passing on benefit to the dead.

Before proceeding to the Qabrustān, it is Mustahab to perform two raka’ts Nafl Salãt at home. Ask Allah Ta’ala to bestow the Thawãb of the Salãt to the deceased of one’s choice. The musalli will be rewarded for this Salãt while the grave of the mayyit will be filled with Noor.

Along the way to the Qabrustān engage in Thikrullaah. Abstain from futile talk and any acts of futility.

At the graveside stand facing the face of the rnayyit with your back towards the Qiblah and recite the relevant Masnoon Dua for the occasion.

Recite a portion of thc Qur’an Shareef silently. It is preferable to recite Surah Yaseen, Surah Mulk and the Surahs from Surah Takaathur to the end of the Qur’an Majeed.

After completing the Tilãwat, turn towards the Qiblah and make dua, asking Allah Ta’ala to accept the recitation and to bestow its Thawab to the deceased. When making dua at the graveside, do not raise the hands, Keep the hands at the sides.

Visiting the Qabrustān on a Friday is very meritorious.
One who visits the graves of his parents on Fridays will be recorded as an obedient child.
Flowers should not be put on the grave nor should the grave be kissed.
Be careful when walking in the Qabrustān. Do not trample on the graves.
Do not laugh or joke in the Qabrustān.
It is meritorious to recite Surah Ikhlaas seven times at the graveside. Insha’Allah the mayyit will be forgiven.

LIFE IN THE BARZAKH

Life in Barzakh (the Grave or that period after death and before Qiyaamah) is of two kinds: (1) The life of ordinary people, (2) The Life of the Ambiya (Prophets) and Shuhadã (Martyrs).

Ordinary people: In Barzakh the body decomposes and is eliminated while the rooh (soul) is assigned to either a place of bliss or chastisement depending on the worldly life of the mayyit (deceased).

In Barzakh the soul becomes dormant, i.e. it does not engage in Ibaadat or contemplation. It has no opportunity of either expiating itself from its earlier sins nor is it able to progress to higher stages. It either is embroiled in chastisement or sleeps in a state of bliss. Thus, inactivity is the lot of the soul of ordinary people in Barzakh.

Ambiya and Shuhadã: The souls of the Ambiya and the Shuhadã do not dwell in inactivity. There is constant progress for them in Barzakh. They are engaged in Ibaadat and enjoy a higher state of existence; hence the Qur’an Majeed says that they are ‘alive’. In fact, their state of life is far superior to the earthly life.
They are more conscious and perceive reality on a higher plane.

In addition, their bodies do not decompose.

Since the Arwaah (souls) of the Ambiya, Shuhadã and Auliyãa are not inactive in Barzakh they have been described as being alive in spite of the earthly maut (death) which overcame them in the earthly Life.

REGARDING ADORNING THE GRAVES OF THE AULIYA’A

The mazaaraat (graves) of the Auliyãa are being venerated as objects of worship. Such graves are built into solid structures and adorned in various ways which are not allowed by the Sharia’h. The ostensible motive for all these embellishments to the graves is to honor the Auliyãa buried therein. But, this honor is shown in an evil way because according to the Sharia’h this manner of honoring the Auliyãa is haraam.

Honoring the Auliyãa is not by adornment of graves and the conversion of the graves into solid structures. The Auliyãa will remain honorable even if their graves are left in the natural simple, unbuilt and unadorned state. In fact their graves will command greater respect, honor and awe if left in the natural state because more anwaar (rays of spiritual light) descend on graves which are left in conformity with the Sunnah. The grave of Hazrat Shaikh Bakhtyaar Kaaki (rahmatullah alayh) has been left in the natural state. So great is the awe and reverence that overcomes the visitor that he is able to perceive the difference of the simple grave. Not even a minute portion of such an awe can be felt at the graves of even kings. He who has eyes (the eyes of the rooh) will perceive the descent of the anwaar on graves left in the state of simplicity—graves not built or cemented over.

Those whose spiritual eyes have become blind should at least be able to under­stand that anwaar are dependent on the observance of the Sunnah and graves built-up and adorned are contrary to the Sunnah. Obliteration of the Sunnah results in the obliteration of anwaar. Kings and the people of wealth were responsible for the embellishment of graves of the Auliyãa a in this un-Islamic and proscribed manner. The Auliyãa never indulged in such futile practices. It should be readily understood, therefore, that such structures erected by the worldly kings and others will be devoid of anwaar.

The construction of graves in such anti-Sharia’h ways is in conflict with the disposition of the Auliyãa a. They were ardent and great followers of the Sunnah. They countenanced not the slightest deviation from the Sunnah of Nabi-e-Kareem (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam). Their lives were dedicated to the Sunnah and through observance of the Sunnah in the minutest detail they sought the pleasure and love of Allah Ta’ala. These haraam trappings embellishing the graves are most certainly intolerable and abhorrent to the Auliyãa a.

Furthermore, such haraam ways of adorning the graves defeat the purpose of ziyaarat (visiting the graves). The purpose of visiting the graves is to induce in one the remembrance of Maut (death) and to create in one the realization of the transitory and perishable nature of this earthly life. This purpose is achieved only if the graves are left in their natural, simple and forlorn state. Forlorn graves produce in the heart remembrance of Maut and disillusionment with the ephemeral existence. Graves adorned un-Islamically and in royal style do not serve this purpose.

It is also claimed that adorned graves instill love and respect in the heart for the Auliyãa a. However, in reality the claim is devoid of substance. It is comparable to the practice of Ta’ziyat (the float processions of shirk of the Shia’as). Those who indulge in the practice of Ta’ziyat profess their love and respect for the Martyrs of Karbala by wailing in profusion on the occasion of the Ta’ziyat ceremonies. They are unable to shed tears or to show their love in the absence of Ta’ziyat. Their love is dependent on Ta’ziyat. Their crying is dependent on Ta’ziyat. But true love and respect do not stand in need of such forms of adornment and embellishments akin to idolatry.

Can anyone claim that the Sahaabah Kiraam had no love for Rasulullah (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam)? Their intense love did not allow the water drip­ping from the holy body of Rasulullah (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam) to fall onto the ground. While Rasulullah Rasulullah (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam) would make wudhu the Sahabah would take the dripping water into their hands and rub it over their faces. But, these men whose love was so profound and so true left the grave of Rasulullah (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam) in the simple natural state. They did not convert the holy graves into solid structures. They did not adorn the grave of Rasulullah (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam). They retained the grave simple because they were aware that Rasulullah (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam) had forbidden the conversion of the graves into solid structures. Thus their love demanded that they obey and follow the teaching of the one whom they loved so dearly.

It is also argued that in embellishing the graves of the Auliyãa and in building them into solid structures their memory and location are perpetuated. This argument too is fallacious. Perpetuating their memory is dependent on Allah Ta’ala and not on the erection of haraam structures and the adoption of haraam forms of decoration. Numerous built-up and solid graves exist without anyone even knowing the names of the inmates of these graves. The correct way of perpetuating the memory of the Auliyãa a is not by building their graves, but by perpetuating their Wilaayat (mission of sainthood), their excellence of Ma’rifat and their noble lives. The Auliyãa are not in need of these unlawful forms of memory-perpetuation schemes invented by the ignorant worldly people.

It should also be borne in mind that the actual purpose of Maut (death) is annihilation and not perpetuation. One dies to be annihilated and not to be perpetuated, In view of this it is nonsensical to arrange material ways of perpetuation.

GRAVE-WALLS

Erecting walls around the grave is an un-Islamic practice. It is not permissible to do so. Rasulullah (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam) once sent Hazrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) to demolish all grave-constructions. Those who erect walls around the graves are not rendering any service to the dead.

CHAPTER#12- Regarding the Purposeful Mutilation of the Body

“Insaan” or man is the highest and the noblest of Allah Ta’ala’s creation. His importance and rank are such that Allah Ta’ala has created the entire universe for his sake and made subservient to man all forces of nature. The Qur’an Shareef is very explicit in making this claim. The elevated rank of man has been emphasized by Allah Ta’ala commanding the Malã-ikah to prostrate in the presence of Adam (alayhis salaam), progenitor of the human race. And,what more can illustrate the reverence of man than the following verse of the Qur’an Shareef:

“And remember when Allah said to the Malaa’ikah: Verily, I shall be creat­ing a Representative an earth…”

The entity of “INSAAN” consists of physical body and celestial soul (Rooh). Both these constitute integral and essential parts of this being known as man. The physical body minus the soul, by virtue of it being a fundamental constituent of Insaan deserves all the respect, dignity and reverence Islam commands for the total “Insaan”, i.e. man, body and soul. Allah Ta’ala has commanded that we show respect and reverence to not only the dead body of man, but even to the nails and hairs which are removed. These too cannot be discarded in disrespect. Nails and the hair have to be buried. Due to the great respect Islam orders for man, all forms of uses and benefits from the human body (dead body) or from any part of the human body are forbidden. The Shari ah decrees

“It is Haraam to derive any benefit (use) from the hair of man and from all his parts because of the reverence (or respect) of man. But, his hair, nails and all parts of him shall be buried.” (Sharhul Muslim)

So great is the respect Islam orders us to show man that long after his death when he has disintegrated and transformed into soil, the Sharia’h commands that when we pass by his grave we should not trample this man’s grave;then the degree or unlawfulness for “mutilating” his body is emphasized to a far greater extent. The elaborate measures–rituals and practices–designed and ordered by Islam to be observed in the burial of dead human bodies all impress the great reverence and sanctity of the human body–that the body of man is an object of respect; that it should be not disrespected in any way, leave alone mutilation suffered at the hands of experimentation. The following extracts from the Islamic Law Books illustrate the great treatment of respect and reverence meted out by Islam to the human body

“And, when the person dies, his jaws are to be tied and his eyes to be closed…. In this (action) is the maintenance of man’s beauty, hence it is beautiful (Mustahsan, i.e. meritorious) to do so.” (Hidayah)

Immediately upon death the jaws are to be tied with a ribbon and the eye-lids to be closed to prevent the unseemly sight of a gaping and gating dead body.

“(While giving the dead body a bath) they should cover the body’s privacy with a cloth so as to fulfill the compulsory duty of concealing the ‘satr’ (pri­vate parts).” (Hidayah)

The dead body is an object of high reverence; hence Islam commands it be treated with respect by bathing it ceremoniously and even concealing the pri­vate parts of the dead body from the sight of the living.

“The table (on which the body is to be laid) is to be perfumed… because this is part of the respect (and reverence) which is to be shown to the dead body.”(Hidayah)

Perfume for the dead? The senses – physical senses are dead as well. Of what use is this act of perfuming the dead? Allah Ta’ala desires us to respect that vehicle -the human physical body which was the receptacle of the celestial soul for which Allah Ta’ala created the entire universe.

“Hunoot (a kind of perfume) shall be rubbed onto the (dead body’s) head and beard and camphor shall he rubbed on those parts of the body which touched the ground in Sajdah… because this is deserving of greater respect.” (Hidayah)

In explaining the reason for the unlawfulness of utilizing the skin of man for any purpose the authoritative Law Book of Islam SHARHUN NIQAAYAH, states:
“… so that mankind does not become audacious in disrespecting that object (human body) which Allah Ta’ala has revered, by using its parts(organs, hair, nails, etc). And, because it is not permissible to derive benefit from it (human body) because of his reverence.”

The above are merely a few examples of respect for the dead body. A host of rules, all indicating and emphasizing the great respect and reverence of the dead body is related to the treatment of the dead body – from the time man dies until after burial. Kitãbul Janã-iz amplv illustrates these numerous rules.
So high is the regard for the body of man that Islam commands that it could not be used for even saving life. The Law Books of Islam stale that if two people are lost or stranded in some remote part and one is on the verge of dying due to starvation it is not lawful for the one to dismember or cut part of his flesh to feed his companion so as to save his life. This is so, despite the fact that Islam makeslawful even the eating of the swine’s flesh when one is reduced to such dire straits of starvation.

No matter how great the advantages to medical science, experimentation and mutilation of human bodies may be, Islam does not condone this sacrilege inflicted upon an object which Allah Ta’ala Himself respects and commanded mankind to revere. The physical body is not the property of INSAAN; it does not belong to him. Therefore, he has no right to misuse this vehicle assigned lo his care for a while. The human body is a sacred trust which Allah Ta’ala has given to man, hence he cannot destroy it by suicide, by donating it and by mutilating it.

CHAPTER#13 - Sins are Hindrance towards Shahaada near Death

Here we will briefly relate some incidents which indicate how sin will become a great impediment on the tongue of the dying one who will be anxious to recite the Kalimah Shahaadat, but will not be able to do so.

Imam Sha’raani (rahmatullahi alayhi) has compiled many such episodes in his Kilaab, Mukhtasar Tazkirh. Among these are the following.

•A certain trader was engrossed so much in his trade activities that he had no time or inclination for his Ibadat. He was completely diverted from the remembrance of Allah Ta’ala. At the time of his death he was in­structed to recite: Laa illaaha il Lal laah”, but on his tongue was only the calculation of figures. In reply to the instruction of the Kalimah he would mention some financial calculation and his fingers moved in counting. In this state, deprived of the Kalimah, his soul departed.
•Another trader who never cleaned the scoop of his scale when weighing also experienced at the time of Maut the inability to recite the Kalimah. He was in the habit of leaving the scoop of his scale unclean. The accumulated dust and other particles resulted in less weight being given to customers. When people present at his Maut instructed him to recite the Kalimah, he would say:
“I am in my proper senses. I understand everything and can say everything. But, when I wish to recite Kalimah Tayyibah, my tongue cannot move because the indicator of the scale becomes fixed on my tongue.”

•A man on his death-bed A man on his death-bed was being instructed to recite the Kalimah. He replied that he was not able to do so because his tongue was accustomed to abusing and reviling his neighbors.
Imam Sha’raani (rahmatullahi alayhi) states in his Kitaab that persistence in the commission of sin will constitute a barrier to the recitation of the Kalimah at the time of Maut. It is, therefore, essential that we strive to the utmost of our ability to abstain from disobedience and to be constant inseeking the forgiveness.

CHAPTER#14 - On the Question of Brain death and the Organs of Mayyit

BRAIN-DEATH IS NOT MAUT

The concept of “brain death” has been formulated by various medical establishments to enable them to grab organs out of the bodies of living human beings. Their fanciful interpretation of death and their misleading definition of death serve only to befuddle the minds of ignoramuses.
By pronouncing a living human being “brain dead” doctors are legally entitled to murder the victims by removing their internal organs for transplantation.
The Sharia’h does not recognize the evil concept of “brain death.” A person pronounced brain dead is both in terms of Islam and physically, alive. He is not dead. His Rooh (the substance of life) is yet in the body. A dead person does not come back to life.

ORGANS OF THE MAYYIT (DEAD BODY)

It is haraam to dismember the body of the mayyit. None of his organs may be removed for transplantation or for any other use whatsoever.
Any wasiyyat (bequest) made by a person with regard to “donation” of his organs is bãtil (null and void). It is haraam to execute the haraam wasiyyat of the mayyit.

CHAPTER#15 - Divine Aid at the time of Death

The scene of Maut is a severe and most dreadful occasion. At the most pre­carious stage of his life, – the commencement of the agony of death—man is surrounded by his enemies—the shayateen (devils). The complication and agony are made all the more severe by the deception practiced by the shayateen striving to gain the rejection of Islam from the departing soul. These hideous beings of deception appear in the forms of friends, parents and sympathizers, offering ‘sympathetic’ and kind advice to the man smitten by the pangs of death. The satanic onslaught against the dying one is so severe that it seems improbable that man who is so weak will survive against the sustained battering of the shayateen.

However, as strong as the onslaught of Shaitaan (devil) may be against the Believer, Allah, The All-Merciful has made ample preparations of defense for man in his confrontation with Shaitaan at the critical point of death. Allah Ta’ala declares in the Qur’an Shareef:

“Verily those who have acknowledged: Our Rabb isAllah, and thereafter remained steadfast, Malã-ikah will descend upon them so that they may not fear nor grieve. And, be happy with the tidings of Jannat which you had been promised. We are your friends in this earthly life and in the Aakhirah. And for you in it (the Hereafter) will be whatever you will desire. And, therein will be for you what you will request. (This will be) the hospitality from (Allah), The Oft-Forgiving, The Most Merciful.” (Surah Fussilat)

Two words in this verse are of special significance, viz., ‘Istiqaamat’ (stead-fastness) and ‘tanazzul-e-Malã-ikah ’ (the descent of angels). Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (radiallaahu anhu) in the tafseer of this verse said that the meaning of ‘Istiqaamat’ here is to be steadfast on Imaan and Tauhid and not to indulge in kufr and shirk. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir). Regarding the ‘descent of angels’, Imam Ibn Kathir narrates the following tafseer of Hazrat Zaid bin Aslam (radiallaahu anhu);

“The angels give man the glad tidings at the time of his Maut, in his grave and when he will rise (on the Day of Qiyaamah).” (Narrated by Ibn Abi Haatim-Tafseer Ibn Kathir)

It is thus established on the basis of this Qur’anic verse that Malã-ikah will appear at the time of the death of those who remained steadfast on Islam and Imaan. At the most critical stage of their life, they will be strengthened and aided by the presence of these Angels of mercy who will proclaim the great success and glad tidings of Jannat.

CHAPTER#16 - An Evil Death

Imam Sha’raani (rahmatullahi alayhi) says that it is the unanimous opinion of the Ulama that only a person who was persistent in committing sin in secret and had no care for the kabirah sins, whose death will be evil (i.e. in the state of kufr or without being able to recite the Kalimah). The death of a pious person will not be in a wretched state.

THE REBELLIOUS ROO’H (soul)

Hazrat Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anhu) narrated that Allah Ta’ala will command the Rooh (of the rebellious) to come out from the body. The Rooh will refuse, but against all its wishes it will be torn from its body in the most dreadful of conditions.

Recite this dua often for relief from the agony of Maut:

“O Allah, aid me in the agonies of Maut.”

This was the Dua’a that Rasulullah—Sallalllahu alayhi wasallam himself recited during his final moments.

Recite this dua’a for Maut on Imaan:

“O Allah! Instruct me with the proof of Imaan at the time of Maut.”

Dawood’s (Alayhis Salām) Conversation with Allah (SWT)

Hazrat Ibn Mas’ud (radhiallahu anhu) narrated the following conversation which took place between Nabi Dawood (alayhis salaam) and Allah Ta’ala.

NABI DAWOOD: O My RABB! What is the reward of a person who accom­panies a Janaazah until the grave and he does so only to attain Your Pleasure?

ALLAH TA’ALA: The Malã-ikah will accompany the Janaazah of such a person and they will make Dua of Rahmat for him.

NABI DAWOOD: O My RABB! What is the reward of one who sympathizes and consoles a person smitten by sorrow and hardship and he does so only to obtain Your Pleasure?

ALLAH TA’ALA: I will grant him the garments of Taqwaa, save him from the Fire and enter him into Jannat.

NABI DAWOOD: O ALLAH! What is the reward of one who for only Your sake undertakes the maintenance of an orphan and widow?

ALLAH TA’ALA : On that Day (of Qiyaamah) when there will be no shade, I will grant him the Shade of My Throne.

NABl DAWOOD: O Allah! What is the reward of one whose cheeks are moistened with tears as a result of Your Fear?

ALLAH TA’ALA: His face will I save from the heat of Jahannum and I will protect him from the terror of the Day of Qiyaamat/Akhirāh.

Imam Ahmad (alayhi-rahmah) and Shaitaan

The time of Maut for the illustrious Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal (rahmatullaahi alayhi) was at hand. The son of this great Imam observed that his father was drenched in perspiration and every now and again uttering “Laa ba’du”. After this was uttered several times by Imam Ahmad, his son asked what it was that he (Imam Ahmad) was saying. In reply Hazrat Imam Ahmad said:

“Shaitaan is standing in my presence and is saying: ‘O Ahmad! Alas! You have slipped away from me.’ In reply to Shaitaan I am saying: “Laa ba’du” (which means not yet – until death finally comes).”

Shaitaan will remain vigilant in the employment of his plots as long as there remains the breath of life in man. Man should therefore never become negli­gent and fearless regarding the tricks of Shaitaan. It was precisely because of recognizing the trick of Shaitaan at this very last stage of life that Imam Ahmad (rahmatullaahi alayhi) was impelled to inform Shaitaan that no man is safe from him as long as there is still life. Hazrat Ahmad penetrated the plot of Shaitaan, which was to put the great Imam’s mind at rest so that he may become forgetful, and then appear in some other guise to assault the Faith of the Imam in that critical stage.

In a similar manner have many Saints disputed with Shaitaan during the agony of death and recognized his deception.

COMPANIONS OF MAUT

Hazrat Mujaahid (rahmatullaahi aiayhi) reported that on the occasion of the Maut of every Believer his/her companions are ushered in his/her presence. If the dying person was among those who indulged in sport and futility then such companions will be brought there. If the dying one was among the people who remembered Allah Ta’ala, then saintly companions will be at hand.

It is therefore imperative that man does not associate in the company of sport and amusement.

SHAI’TAANI (DEVIL’S) DECEPTION

In the Hadith it is reported that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“Be near your dying ones and instruct them with “Laa ilaa ha il lal laah”. Give them the glad tidings of Jannat. Verily, even man and women of great intelligence are in a stupor at that critical juncture. And, at that juncture Shaitaan is nearest to man at any time before.” (Narrated by Abu Naeem in Al-hulyah on the authority of Waathilah—radiallaahu anhu-). (Kanzul Ammaal)

Hazrat Umar (radiallahu anhu)

“B e near to your dying ones and remind them of Allah Ta ‘ala, for verily, they see what you cannot see.” (Narrated by Ibn Abi Dunyaa—Kanzul Ammaal)

In one report Hazrat Faruq-e-A’zam said:

“Verily, they (the dying) see certain things and some conversation takes place with them.” (Kanzul Ammal)

Hazrat Hasan Basri (rahmatullahi alayhi) narrates:

“When Allah Ta’ala ordered the descent of Hazrat Aadam and Hawwaa (alayhimas salaam), Shaitaan too descended to celebrate the occasion and said: “When I have succeeded in deceiving the parents then the task of defeating their weak progeny will be relatively simple.””

It was regarding this opinion of Shaitaan that Allah Ta’ala said (in the Qur’an Shareef):

“Verily, Iblis found his opinion regarding them (man) correct. They followed him, but a group among the Believers.”

In defiance, I blis observed: ‘ I will not leave man as long as there remains in him breath of life. I will deceive him with false promises’.

Allah Ta’ala said in reply:

“By My Dignity and My Splendor I will not close (the door of) repentance (for man) until such time that he is not overtaken by the agonies of death. Iwill answer them whenever they call to Me. And, I will grant to them when they ask Me. And, I will forgive when they seek forgiveness.”

EVIL DEATH — A CONSEQUENCE OF DISOBEDIENCE

A wretched and an evil state of Maut is not a spontaneous development arising out of the agony of death. It is the consequence of the previous commission of evil and disobedience which have become manifest at the time of death. (Hazrat Mufti Mohammed Shafi (R.A.))

SLEEPING WITH JANÃBAT

Hazrat Maimunah Binti Sa’d (radiallaahu anhaa) asked Rasulullah (sallallahu alavhi wasallam):

“O Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam)! Is there any blame if a man requiring a ghusl sleeps without taking the ghusl?”

Rasulullah (sallallahu alavhi wasallam) replied:

“I do not prefer that he sleeps without Wudhu, for I fear that his maut may came while he is still sleeping, and that Jibraeel will not came near to him.”

It is evident from this Hadith that Jibraeel (alayhis salaam) also makes an appearance when a Believer is about to die. But, one who dies in the state of janãbat (requiring a compulsory bath) is deprived of the appearance of Jibra’eel (alayhis salaam). It is therefore, of vital importance for one who is in the state of janãbat to at least take Wudhu before sleeping, for Maut is ever hovering at hand.

CHAPTER#17 - Impediments of Divine Aid at Death

Hazrat Abu Hurairah (radiallaahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alay hi wasallam) said:

“When death arrives to the (pious) Believer, two Malã-ikah with a white silken container appear and say: ‘Emerge in happiness and (come to) the Pleasure of Allah and to peace and a Rabb well-pleased’. The soul then emerges in the best fragrance of mask. The Malã-ikah of Rahmat carry in turn the soul with the utmost dignity and respect towards the Heavens.. .”

(And, if the soul was of a non-Believer) two Angels of chastisement appear with sack-cloth and command: ‘Come out in disgrace and enter the state of wrath and the Wrath of Allah, Azza wa Jal’. It emerges then in the worst stenches of carrion…”

IMAM J’AFAR AT DEATH

When the agonies of death commenced for Imam Abu Ja’far Qurtabi (rahmatullaahi alayhi) those present instructed him to recite Laa ilaa ha il lal laah. In reply, the great Imam would say, “Laa (i.e. ‘No’).” After a while when he regained his proper frame of mind, the people told him that in answer to their instruction (talqeen) of ‘Laa ilaa ha il lal laah’ he said, ‘Laa.’ Imam Ja’far (Rahmatullahi alayh) said that he was not saying ‘Laa’ in reply to their instruction, but was doing so in reply to the exhortation of two shayateen who were present. One was saying: ‘Die on the religion of the Nasaara’ and the other was saying: ‘Die on the religion of the Yahood’. In answer, Imam Ja’far was saying: “Laa Laa”.

Imam Ja’far, further told those present that he said to the shayateen:

“What! Are you imparting to me at this time this lesson (of rejecting Islam) when I myself had written in the Kitaabs, Tirmizi and Nasaai, the Hadith of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam):

‘Verily the Shaitaan appears to you before your death and will say: Die as a Yahudi, die as a Nasaara.’

There are many stories regarding the Saints of the Ummah, who refused at the time of the talqeen (instruction of Laa ilaa ha il-lal laah) to repeal the Kalimah. On lookers gained the impression that the saint was rejecting the Kalimah whereas in reality he was rejecting the advances of the shayateen attempting to deceive him.

IMPEDIMENTS TO DIVINE AID

The Ahādith of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), and the statements and episodes of the countless Sulahaa and Auliyãa convey a very clear picture of the agony of death and the nefarious plots of the shayateen to ensnare the Believer into the rejection of Islam and the adoption of kufr. The forces of Shaitaan, in a final bid to capture the Imaan of the dying Believer, deploy all their tricks and plots. At this critical juncture, man can only save himself from falling headlong into the abyss of kufr by the arrival of Divine aid. This Aid has been premised to the Believers, and at the occasion of Maut it comes in the form of Malã-ikah of Rahmat who ward off the deceptions of shayateen. The falsehood of Shaitaan is bared to the dying one and he rejoices at the Divine aid which saves his life and soul from eternal perdition.

The Malã-ikah of Rahmat will come to the aid of the Believer at the time of Maut as long as there exists, no obstacle to block their entry into the presence of the dying person. According to Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), there are several factors which effectively block the arrival of the Angels of Mercy. It is in our own interests – for the protection of our Imaan and for the safeguarding of our everlasting life of bliss in the Ākhirah that we take note of these factors which constitute most effective obstacles to the entry of the Malã-ikah of Rahmat – especially so when their presence is most required – at the time of maut.

These obstacles are:

•The presence of dogs.
•Pictures and photographs of animate objects.
•The presence of a person in the state of janãbat.
•Musical instruments.
•The presence of bare-headed females in the house.
•The presence of urine in a container in the house.
These factors which prevent the Angels of Mercy From entering homes are recorded in the Kitaab, Shifaa-ul Islam Fi ma Tanaffara anhul Malaaikatul Kiraam.

CHAPTER#18 - Visiting the Qabristan (Graveyard)

Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) has said:
“Visit the graves, for surely visiting the graves lessens worldly love and reminds you of the Hereafter.”

The Qabrastan could be visited any day. Friday is preferred for this visit and if possible it should be done weekly. It is related in the Hadith that “Whoever will visit his parent’s grave every Friday, will be granted Maghfirat and he will be recorded as an obedient son.”

What to recite when visiting the Qabrastan

Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) has taught the Sahabah (Radhiallahu anhum) these words on sending salutations to the people in the graves and pray for their forgiveness:

“Peace be upon you, O you of the believers and Muslims dwelling in these abodes. Behold! If Allah wills, we shall meet you. We beseech of Allah safety for us and for you.”

What to recite when in the Qabrastan (cemetery)

There are many supplications that may be read at the graveside, the best being the recital of Qur’aan. Stand facing the grave (back to the Qiblah) and recite as much of the Qur’an as possible and make dua’a for the Maghfirat of the departed. A few ways of praying for the dead, as related in the Hadith, are given below:

•Recite Surah Ikhlas (Qul-Huwal-Lahu-Ahad…) 11 times. It is related in the Hadith that whoever visits the Qabrastan and recites Surah Ikhlaas 11 times and prays for the dead, will be rewarded as many fold as the dead in the Qabrastan.
•Surah Fatiha (Alhamdulillahi…), Surah Ikhlaas, Surah Takaasur (Alhaakumuttakaasur…). It is reported in the Hadith that whoever visits the Qabrastan and recites Alhamd… Qulhuwallah… and Alhaakumuttakathur… and prays for the dead, the people of the graves will ask Allah for such person’s forgiveness.
•Recite Surah Yaseen. It is reported in the Hadith that if a person recites Surah Yaaseen in the Qabrastan, the punishment of the dead will be eased and the reciter will be awarded just as much as the dead
The Sahabah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) visited the Qabrastan in this manner. The words in the Hadith indicate only the salutations and Duas for the dead and the remembrance of Allah Ta’ala. All other ways such as placing wreaths, flowers, paying homage etc. are incorrect according to the Shari’at and one should abstain from acting wrongly.

CHAPTER#19 - Glossary of Important Terms

Rasulullah
The Mercy to all the worlds, The Last Prophet and Messenger of Allah, Our Master Muhammad– Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam

Ākhirah:
The Day of Judgment

anwaar
Plural of Noor, meaning light

Arwaah
Plural of Rooh, meaning soul

Asbat
Male relatives on the father’s side

Auliyã:
Plural of Wali, meaning Friend of Allah

Barzakh
The transitory state between this life and the Hereafter

Bãtil
False. Used here to identify deviant sects

Bid’ah:
An act of innovation without substantiation by Revealed Texts

Bid’at
Same as Bid’ah

Deeni:
To do with deen, matters to do with religious affairs

Deoband:
A town in northern India that gave its name to the school of thought to which a great majority of scholars subscribe.

Dua
Supplication

Fardh-e-Kifayah
An obligation on the community. If some perform it, the obligation is lifted from the entire community

Fuqaha:
Plural of Faqih, meaning a high ranking scholar

ghusl
Bath, used here to mean the funeral bath

Hadhrat
A title used to mean reverence

Haraam:
Forbidden. Also, the most extreme classification of prohibited acts

Hidayah
A leading text on Sacred Law

Hijab/Hijaab (Purdah):
The Islamic dress-code for women. The entire set of acts and attributes that constitute the modest get-up for all Muslims.

Ibaadat:
Worship

Imamat:
The act of leading in ritual prayer (Salaat)

Isaal-E-Thawãb:
To ask Allah to grant the merits of a supererogatory act performed by one to another person

Istinja
The act of cleaning oneself after answering the call of nature. Used here to mean washing the privates of the Mayyit.

Izãr
The lower garment of the Kafan—Burial Shroud

Jama’t:
Congregation, used here to mean the congregation for prayer

Janaabat
The greater state of ritual impurity, a state in which ghusl (ritual bath) becomes mandatory

Janãbat
Same as Janaabat

Janãzah:
Funeral, corpse, cadaver

Jannat
Paradise

Jazãzah Salat
Ritual Funeral Prayers

Kafan
Burial Shroud

Kãfir
Disbeliever, Infidel, Non-Muslim

Kalimah
Same as Kalima Tayyibah

Kalimah Shahaadat
The second testimony of faith, commonly recited in the Salaat

Kalimah Tayyibah
The first testimony of faith: Laa Ilaaha Illal Lah, Muhammad-ur rasul-ullah

Khatam:
The act of the completion of the recitation of the entire Holy-Quran

Khatm:
The act of the completion of the recitation of the entire Holy-Quran

Khunthã Mushkil
A hermaphrodite who possesses both male and female reproductive organs

Kitãbul Janã-iz
Book of Funerals

Kurta
The upper garment of a female’s burial shroud

Kurtah
Same as kurta

Lahd
A particular type of grave, with a shallow incision along the entire length of the Qiblah side wall

Lifãfah
The outer most garment of the Kafan, this covers the entire body from above the feet to below the feet

Loban
Incense

Ma’rifat
A term used by the Mashaaikh (saints). It means the inner truths about Allah

Mahram
Her male close relatives. Example father, brother, son

Makrooh Tahrimi:
A disliked act. An act that is frowned upon. The second to most extreme classification of prohibited acts

Makrooh:
Disliked

Malã-ikah
Plural of angels

Masjidul Haraam:
The Grand Mosque in the magnificent city of Makkah (Makkah-tul-Mukarramah)

Masnoon
Preferred, as prescribed in the Sunnah

Maut:
Death

Mayyit:
A corpse

Muhtadhar
A person in his/her death throes

Mu’min
A believer. A Muslim

Murtad
A Muslim who renounced his faith

musalli
A person performing the Salaat

Mustahab
Preferred

Nafl Sa’lãt:
Supererogatory Prayer

Najãsat
Filth

Najãt
Salvation

Najis
Something or someone who is ritually filthy

Niyyat
Intention

Paak
Pure, ritually in a state of cleanliness

Purdah (Hijab)
Used here to mean a curtaining around the graveside before lowering a female corpse

Qabar:
Grave

Qabr
Same as qabar

Qabrastan
Same as Qabrustān

Qabrustān:
Graveyard

Qadiani
A deviant sect that left the fold of Islam by denying the finality of Prophet Muhammad

Qamees
A male person’s upper garment in the burial shroud

Qiblah
The direction in which all Muslims face while performing Salaat

Qiyaamah
The Day of Judgment

Quboor:
Plural of qabr, meaning grave

Qur’an Shareef
A better way to refer to the Holy-Quran, it means The Noble Quran

Rabb
The Sustainer

raka’ts
The cycles in a ritual prayer–Salaat

Rooh:
Soul

Sabr:
Patience, perseverance

Saffs:
The rows formed while performing a congregational prayer

Sahabah:
The Companions of the Prophet

Salãt:
Ritual Prayer

Salf-E-Sãleheen:
The descendents of the Prophet: His Companions and their Followers. The Sahabah and Ta’bieen

Sar-band
The additional garment in her burial shroud

satr
That part of the human anatomy that should be covered at all times.

Seena-band
The additional garment in a female’s burial shroud

Shaikh:
A title to mean reverence. Also used to mean a person’s spiritual guide

Shaitaan
Devil, the sworn enemy of Allah and His Creation/

Shar’i:
In accordance with the Sacred Law: Shari’ah.

Shareef:
Noble

Sharhul Muslim
An exegesis of the great work of Hadith-Shareef

Shar’i
To do with Shariah

Shariah:
Sacred Law

shayateen
Plural of Shaytaan, the devil

Shiq
A type of grave where an incision or shallow ditch is dug on the floor of the grave in the centre

Sunnah:
All that which the Prophet intended for us to follow upon

Sunnat:
All that which the Prophet intended for us to follow upon

Surah Mulk:
A chapter in the Holy Quran

Surah:
Any particular chapter in the Holy Quran

Ta’bieen:
That generation of Muslims that came right after the Sahabah

Ta’ziyat:
Condolence

Tãhir
Ritually in a state of cleanliness

Tayammum
Dry ablution

ta’ziah/ta’ziyah (Shia’a practices)
Annual Shia’a ritual of observing superficial mourning

Thawãb:
Merits, credits

Thikrullaah
The remembrance of Allah

Tilãwat
The recitation of the Holy Quran

Ulama-e-Haqq:
The rightly guided scholars

Ummah
The followers of and believers in Rasulullah (Sallallãhu alayhi wasallam)

Wudhu:
Ablution. The act of restoring the state of purity from lesser ritual impurity

Zawwal:
The time of day when the sun is passing the zenith. All ritual prayers (Salawaat) are prohibited at this time.